Tuesday, January 8, 2008

Dubrovnik IPA: [ˈdǔ.bro̞ːʋ.nik]) is a historic city on the Adriatic Sea coast in the extreme south of Croatia, positioned at the terminal end of the Isthmus of Dubrovnik. It is one of the most prominent tourist resorts, a seaport and the center of the Dubrovnik-Neretva county. Its population was 43,770 in 2001 In 2001 the absolute majority of its citizens declared themselves as Croats with 88.39% (2001 census).
Since 1979, the historic centre of Dubrovnik has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites.
The prosperity of the city of Dubrovnik has always been based on maritime trade. In the Middle Ages, as the Republic of Ragusa, it became the only eastern Adriatic city-state to rival Venice. Supported by its wealth and skilled diplomacy, the city achieved a remarkable level of development, particularly during the 15th and 16th centuries. Ragusa was one of the centers of the development of the Croatian language and literature, home to many notable poets, playwrights, painters, mathematicians, physicists and other scholars.



Main article: Republic of Ragusa From the foundation to the end of the Republic
When the Habsburg Empire gained these provinces after the 1815 Congress of Vienna, the new imperial authorities installed a bureaucratic administration, which retained the essential framework of the Italian-speaking system. It introduced a series of modifications intended to centralize, albeit slowly, the bureaucratic, tax, religious, educational, and trade structures. Unfortunately for the local residents, these centralization strategies, which were intended to stimulate the economy, largely failed. And once the personal, political and economic trauma of the Napoleonic Wars had been overcome, new movements began to form in the region, calling for a political reorganization of the Adriatic along national lines.
The combination of these two forces—a flawed Habsburg administrative system and new national movements claiming ethnicity as the founding block towards a community—created a particularly perplexing problem; for Dalmatia was a province ruled by the German-speaking, centralizing Habsburg monarchy, with Italian-speaking elites that dominated a general population consisting of a Croatian, Catholic Slav majority and strong Orthodox minority, that later through the influence of Serb Orthodox Church turned to Serbhood; older sources mention them declaring as Croats. Though always an unreliable estimate, census takers in 1846 counted 16,000 Italians, 320,000 Croatians and 80,000 Serb Orthodox.
In 1815 the former Ragusan Government, i.e. its noble assembly, met for the last time in the ljetnikovac in Mokošica. Once again heavy efforts were undertaken to reestablish the Republic however this time it was all in vain. After the fall of the Republic most of the aristocracy died out and emigrated overseas. Others were recognized by the Austrian Empire.
In 1848, the Croatian Assembly (Sabor) published the People's Requests in which they requested among other things the abolition of serfdom and the unification of Dalmatia with the rest of Croatian lands (primarily with Austro-Hungarian Kingdom of Croatia). The Dubrovnik municipality was the most outspoken of all the Dalmatian communes in its support for unification with Croatia. A letter was sent to Zagreb with pledges to work for this idea. In 1849, Dubrovnik continued to lead the Dalmatian cities in the struggle for unification. A large-scale campaign was launched in the local paper L'Avvenire (The Future) based on a clearly formulated programme: the federal system for the Habsburg territories, the inclusion of Dalmatia into united Croatia and the Slavic brotherhood.
In the same year, the first issue of the Dubrovnik almanac appeared, Flower of the National Literature (Dubrovnik, cvijet narodnog knjizevstva), in which Petar Preradovic published his noted poem "To Dubrovnik". This and other literary and journalistic texts, which continued to be published, contributed to the awakening of the national consciousness reflected in efforts to introduce the Croatian language into schools and offices, and to promote Croatian books. The Emperor Franz Joseph brought the so-called Imposed Constitution which prohibited the unification of Dalmatia and Croatia and also any further political activity with this end in view. The political struggle of Dubrovnik to be united with Croatia, which was intense throughout 1848 and 1849, did not succeed at that time.
In 1861 the Dalmatian Assembly met for the first time, with representatives from Ragusa. Representatives of Cattaro (now Kotor) came to join the struggle for unification with Croatia. The citizens of Ragusa gave them a festive welcome, flying Croatian flags from the ramparts, and exhibiting the slogan: Ragusa with Cattaro. The people of Cattaro elected a delegation to go to Vienna; Ragusa nominated Niko Pucic. Niko Pucic went to Vienna to demand not only the unification of Dalmatia with Croatia, but also the unification of all Croatian territories under one common Assembly.
In 1893, the minister of the city, the Baron Francesco Ghetaldi-Gondola, opened the monument for Ivan Gundulic in Piazza Gundulic (Gondola).

Austrian rule
With the fall of Austria-Hungary in 1918, the city was incorporated into the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (later the Kingdom of Yugoslavia). The city's name was officially changed from Ragusa into Dubrovnik.
In World War II, Dubrovnik became part of the Independent State of Croatia, even if occupied by the Italian army first, and the by the German after September 1943. In October 1944 Tito's partisans entered in Dubrovnik, that became consequently part of the Communist Yugoslavia.

Yugoslavia (1921- 1991)

Main article: Siege of Dubrovnik The breakdown of Yugoslavia
Today Dubrovnik is a tranquil touristic and cultural center hosting many musical, art and theater events year round. The annual Dubrovnik Summer Festival is a cultural event when keys of the city are given to artists who entertain Dubrovnik's population and their guests for entire month with live plays, concerts, and games.
Ivan Gundulić, a 17th century Croatian writer, predicted the downfall of the great Turkish Empire in his great poem Osman. He wrote these immortal verses that are performed on every opening of the world famous Dubrovnik Summer Festival:
O, beautiful liberty, dear and sweet,
Thou heavenly gift where riches all meet,
Actual source of our glory of these hours,
The sole adornment of this grove of ours,
All silver, all gold, and our lives so dear,
Cannot recompense thy beauty so clear.

With these verses Dubrovnik major invites actors and poems to enter through main gates inside city stone walls. As young actor Goran Visnjic played Hamlet at the Dubrovnik Summer Festival. He was noticed and approved by the public at the very start of his career. The Dubrovnik Summer Festival has been awarded its first Gold International Trophy for Quality (2007) by the Editorial Office in collaboration with the Trade Leaders Club.
February 3 is the feast of Sveti Vlaho (Saint Blaise), who is the city's patron saint. Every year the city of Dubrovnik celebrates the holiday with Mass, parades, and festivities that last for several days.

Dubrovnik has a number of educational institutions. These include the University of Dubrovnik, a Nautical College, a Tourist College, a University Centre for Postgraduate Studies of the University of Zagreb, the ACMT (American College of Management and Technology), and an Institute of History of the Croatian Academy of Arts and Sciences.

The climate along the Dubrovnik Region is a typical Mediterranean one, with mild, rainy winters and hot and dry summers. The air temperatures can slightly vary, depending on the area or region. Summer temperatures in July rise till 34°C in the northern part, while in the southern part they usually rise to 38°C. During winter the coldest temperatures are recorded in the northern Adriatic with temperatures dropping sometimes below zero, while the southern regions of the Adriatic coast generally remain above zero.
Air temperature
Sea temperature

average annual 16.4°C (61.5°F)
average of coldest period (January) 9°C (48.2°F)
average of warmest period (August) 24.9°C (76.8°F)
average May - September 17.9°C - 23.8°C (64.2°F - 74.8°F)
approximately 38 ‰ (parts per thousand)
average annual 1,020.8 mm
average annual rain days 109.2
average annual 2629 l
average daily hours: 7.2 h Dubrovnik Climate

The patron saint of the city is Sveti Vlaho (Saint Blaise), whose statues are seen around the city. He has an importance similar to that of St. Mark the Evangelist to Venice.
Many Conversos (Marranos) were attracted to Dubrovnik, formerly a considerable seaport. In May, 1544, a ship landed there filled exclusively with Portuguese refugees, as Balthasar de Faria reported to King John.
Inhabitants of Dubrovnik often proudly quote the Irish playwright and man of letters, George Bernard Shaw, who visited the city in 1929: "If you want to see heaven on earth, come to Dubrovnik."
Dubrovnik hosted the tenth and final Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne in 1956.
The oldest arboretum in the world, Arboretum Trsteno, dating from before 1492, is near Dubrovnik.
The third oldest European pharmacy, dating from 1317 but only still in operation is located at Little Brothers church in Dubrovnik.
30 minutes by car from the old city is the Dubrovnik Highlands (which is in Bosnia and Herzegovina). This area is commonly known for its crystal clear water, pine forests, rough mountain terrain, huge carp fish, winter sports, and hot dry summers.
In the bay of Dubrovnik is the 72-hectare wooded island of Lokrum, where according to legend, Richard the Lionheart was cast ashore after being shipwrecked in 1192. The island includes a fortress, botanical garden, monastery and naturist beach.
The Australian rock band The Dubrovniks (198795) owed its name to the origin of the father of one of the members.
In the feature film Rosemary's Baby, Roman Castevet, the leader of the witch coven, is falsely said to be in Dubrovnik, leading Rosemary to exclaim on his presence, "You're in Dubrovnik, I can't hear you." Miscellaneous

Marino Ghetaldi, scientist (1568 - 1626)
Rudjer Boscovich, scientist and poet, 18th century
Biagio Ghetaldi, politician, noble, poet
Marin Držić, Croatian playwright and prose writer
Ivan Gundulić, Baroque poet
Federico Seismit-Doda (1825-1893), Italian politician
Francesco Ghetaldi-Gondola (Baron Frano Gondola) (1833-1899) - soldier, statesman, nobleman, Knight of Malta
Medo Pucić (Orsato Pozza) (1821-1882) - writer, politician and nobleman
Niko Pucić (Nicola Pozza) (1820-1883) - politician and nobleman
Pero Budmani (1835-1914) - linguist
Vlaho Bukovac (Biagio Faggioni) (1855-1922) - painter.
Ivo Vojnović(1857-1929) - writer
Frano Supilo (1870-1917) - politician and journalist
Marino "Nono" de Bona, World War II survivor who led an immigration wave to Lima, Peru
Eduard Miloslavić - scientist
Vlaho Paljetak - (1893 - 1944) poet
Tereza Kesovija - singer
Josip Ivanovic - sculptor
Đelo Jusić, singer and composer
Đelo Jusić,jr. - composer & producer
Mario Bonić - professional football player
Ahmet Brković - professional football player
Veselin Đuho - waterpolo player, Olympic winner
Goran Sukno - waterpolo player, Olympic winner
Božo Vuletić - waterpolo player, Olympic winner
Sanja Jovanović - Olympic swimmer
Ivo "Duke" Karač - ancient duke of provincy
Frano Lasić - actor
Dario Kovač aka Gunch - famous techno dj
Vlaho Bušelić aka Gunny - singer and composer
Niko Pulic - race driver
Ottavio Missoni - (1921) fashion designer
Benito Bersa (1873-1934) - musician
Robert Boskovic-Zarak - actor, b. 11 February 1977.
Mladen Branđolica - actor, b. 1924.
Niksa Marinović - actor, b. 24 May 1974.
Mise Martinović - actor, b. 1 June 1926.
Miljenko Vikić - actor, b. 1931,
Lukrecija Bresković - actress, b. 30 August 1940,
Maja Cucković - actress, b. 10 April 1935,
Zuza Egreny - actress, b. 31 December 1932.
Tereza Kesovija - singer, b. 3 October 1938,
Perica Martinović - actress, b. 16 May 1955.
Doris Sarić-Kukuljica - actress, b. 17 March 1960.
Srđana Simunović - actress, b. 13 January 1976.
Luka Kunčević - composer, b. 14 September 1973.
Milan Babić - director, writer, b. 7 May 1974.
Branko Bauer - director, writer, other crew member, second unit director or assistant director, b. 18 February 1921,
Marija Nemčić - director, b. 1962.
Luko Paljetak - writer, b. 19 August 1943.
Dusan Jeričević - production designer, art director, set decorator, sound department member, art department member, b. 27 May 1923.
Antun Fabris - Serb journalist and activist Dubrovnik Notable people from Dubrovnik

Images of Dubrovnik


No comments: