Sunday, November 18, 2007
Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Urdu: ) (December 25, 1876 – September 11, 1948) was an Indian Muslim politician and leader of the All India Muslim League who founded Pakistan and served as its first Governor-General. He is officially known in Pakistan as Quaid-e-Azam (Urdu: قائد اعظم — "Great Leader") and Baba-e-Qaum ("Father of the Nation.") His birth and death anniversaries are national holidays in Pakistan.
Jinnah rose to prominence in the Indian National Congress expounding ideas of Hindu-Muslim unity and helping shape the 1916 Lucknow Pact with the Muslim League; he also became a key leader in the All India Home Rule League. Differences with Mohandas Gandhi led Jinnah to quit the Congress and take charge of the Muslim League. He proposed a fourteen-point constitutional reform plan to safeguard the political rights of Muslims in a self-governing India. His proposals failed amid the League's disunity, driving a disillusioned Jinnah to live in London for many years.
Several Muslim leaders persuaded Jinnah to return to India in 1934 and re-organise the League. Tempered by the failure to build coalitions with the Congress, Jinnah embraced the goal of creating a separate state for Muslims as in the Lahore Resolution. The League won most Muslim seats in the elections of 1946, and Jinnah launched the Direct Action campaign of strikes and protests to achieve "Pakistan", which degenerated into communal violence across India. The failure of the Congress-League coalition to govern the country prompted both parties and the British to agree to partition. As Governor-General of Pakistan, Jinnah led efforts to rehabilitate millions of refugees, and to frame national policies on foreign affairs, security and economic development.
Jinnah was born as Mahomedali Jinnahbhai
Creation of Pakistan
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Hardiman, David Peasant Nationalists of Gujarat, ISBN 0-19-561255-8
Jalal, Ayesha (1994). The Sole Spokesman: Jinnah, the Muslim League and the Demand for Pakistan. Cambridge: CUP. ISBN 0-521-45850-1
Jinnah, Fatima (1987). Quaid-i-Azam Academy My Brother. ISBN 969-413-036-0
Mansergh. Transfer of Power Papers (Volume IX)
Wolpert, Stanley (2002). Jinnah of Pakistan. Oxford: OUP.
Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Government of Pakistan Website.
Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah. The Jinnah Society.
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Jinnah's speech to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan - August 11, 1947. pakistani.org.
Jinnah's Thought at a Glance. YesPakistan.com.
Mohammed Ali Jinnah (1876–1948). Harappa.com.
Pictures of Quaid (Album). Urdu Point.
South Asia's Clarence Darrow. Chowk.
1947 - August. Chronicles Of Pakistan.
Jinnah's family barely survives in Quaid's city. The Nation.
Posted by gigihong07 at 7:58 AM