Friday, October 26, 2007

Jeulmun Period Mumun Period Gojoseon, Jin Proto-Three Kingdoms:  Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye  Samhan   Ma, Byeon, Jin Three Kingdoms:  Goguryeo  Baekje  Silla, Gaya North-South States:List of Rulers of Korea  Unified Silla  Balhae  Later Three Kingdoms Goryeo Joseon Korean Empire Japanese rule  Provisional Gov't Division of Korea North, South Korea
Korean dynasties are listed in the order of their fall.
This list includes the monarchs' romanized posthumous or temple names and reign dates. Names are romanized according to the South Korean Revised Romanization of Korean. McCune-Reischauer romanizations may be found at the articles about the individual monarchs.
See also List of legendary monarchs of Korea.

List of monarchs
Military history
Naval history
Timeline Gojoseon
from Gyuwon Sahwa, considered legendary:

Dangun Wanggeom 왕검 (BCE 2333-BCE 2240)
Buru 부루 (BCE 2240-BCE 2206)
Gareuk 가륵 (BCE 2206-BCE 2155)
Osa 오사 (BCE 2155-BCE 2106)
Gueul 구을 (BCE 2106-BCE 2071)
Dalmun 달문 (BCE 2071-BCE 2039)
Hanyul 한율 (BCE 2039-BCE 2014)
Seohan 서한 (BCE 2014-BCE 1957)
Asul 아술 (BCE 1957-BCE 1929)
Noeul 노을 (BCE 1929-BCE 1906)
Dohae 도해 (BCE 1906-BCE 1870)
Ahan 아한 (BCE 1870-BCE 1843)
Heuldal 흘달 (BCE 1843-BCE 1800)
Gobul 고불 (BCE 1800-BCE 1771)
Beoreum 벌음 (BCE 1771-BCE 1738)
Wina 위나 (BCE 1738-BCE 1720)
Yeoeul 여을 (BCE 1720-BCE 1657)
Dongeom 동엄 (BCE 1657-BCE 1637)
Gumoso 구모소 (BCE 1637-BCE 1612)
Gohol 고홀 (BCE 1612-BCE 1601)
Sotae 소태 (BCE 1601-BCE 1568)
Saekbullu 색불루 (BCE 1568-BCE 1551)
Amul 아물 (BCE 1551-BCE 1532)
Yeonna 연나 (BCE 1532-BCE 1519)
Solla 솔나 (BCE 1519-BCE 1503)
Churo 추로 (BCE 1503-BCE 1494)
Dumil 두밀 (BCE 1494-BCE 1449)
Haemo 해모 (BCE 1449-BCE 1427)
Mahyu 마휴 (BCE 1427-BCE 1418)
Nahyu 내휴 (BCE 1418-BCE 1365)
Deungol 등올 (BCE 1365-BCE 1359)
Chumil 추밀 (BCE 1359-BCE 1351)
Gammul 감물 (BCE 1351-BCE 1342)
Orumun 오루문 (BCE 1342-BCE 1322)
Sabeol 사벌 (BCE 1322-BCE 1311)
Maereuk 매륵 (BCE 1311-BCE 1293)
Mamul 마물 (BCE 1293-BCE 1285)
Damul 다물 (BCE 1285-BCE 1266)
Duhol 두홀 (BCE 1266-BCE 1238)
Dareum 달음 (BCE 1238-BCE 1224)
Eumcha 음차 (BCE 1224-BCE 1205)
Euruji 을우지 (BCE 1205-BC 1196)
Mulli 물리 (BCE 1196-BCE 1181)
Guhol 구홀 (BCE 1181-BCE 1174)
Yeoru 여루 (BCE 1174-BCE 1169)
Boeul 보을 (BCE 1169-BCE 1158)
Goyeolga 고열가 (BCE 1158-BCE 1128) Gija-Gojoseon
Main article: Wiman Joseon earliest attested by contemporaneous records:

Wiman of Gojoseon 위만 衛滿 (194 BCE? - ?)
Unknown, (? - ?), son of Wiman
Ugeo of Gojoseon 우거왕 右渠王 (? - 108 BCE), grandson of Wiman Wiman Joseon
Buyeo (c.239 BC - 494 CE) ruled in modern-day Manchuria. The rulers continued to use the titles of Dangun. Some records refer to Bukbuyeo (North Buyeo) and Dongbuyeo (East Buyeo). It was absorbed into Goguryeo.

Haemosu of Buyeo 해모수 (239 - 195 BCE)
Mosuri of Buyeo 모수리 (195 - 170 BCE)
Go Haesa of Buyeo 고해사 (170 - 121 BCE)
Go Uru of Buyeo 고우루 (121 - 86 BCE) Buyeo
(c.108 BCE–c.58 BCE)

Go Dumak of Bukbuyeo 고두막 (108 - 60 BCE)
Go Museo of Bukbuyeo 고무수 (60 - 58 BCE) Bukbuyeo
(c.86 BCE–22 CE) The rulers of Dongbuyeo submitted to Bukbuyeo in 86 BC, and thus used the title Wang ("King").

Hae Buru of Dongbuyeo 해부루왕 解夫婁王 (86 - 48 BCE)
Geumwa of Dongbuyeo 금와왕 金蛙王 (48 - 7 BCE)
Daeso of Dongbuyeo 대소왕 臺素王 (7 BCE - 22 CE) Dongbuyeo
Goguryeo (37 BC - 668 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Goguryeo rulers may have used the title of Taewang (太王, "Greatest King"). [1]
Notes: [1] Some of Goguryeo's own records of individual kings, especially of the 19th (Gwanggaeto), use the title "Taewang" or "Hotaewang", roughly meaning Greatest King or Very Greatest King. Some argue that the title should be translated as "Emperor," equivalent of the Chinese title 皇帝, but this is not widely accepted. The most complete and oldest existing Korean history text, the Samguk Sagi and the Samguk Yusa, written centuries after Goguryeo was defeated, uses the title "Wang", meaning King.
[2] The king names generally derive from the location of the king's burial, and do not necessarily correspond to the Chinese concept of 諡號.
[3] Goguryeo kings had the surname Go, except for the second (Yuri) through fifth (Mobon), whose surnames are recorded as Hae. All of the kings are recorded to belong to the same patrilineal bloodline. It is not clear whether the two surnames are different transcription of the same name, or evidence of a power struggle.
[4] The Samguk Sagi and Samguk Yusa, and sometimes other records mention "other names," "birth names," "childhood names," or "personal names."
[5] The Legendary line names and dates are from the Samguk Sagi. The Wei shu (History of the Wei dynasty) gives the following names: 朱蒙 Jumong, 閭達 Yeodal, 始閭諧 Shiryeohae, 如栗 Yeoyul, and 莫來 Mangnae. The legendary line had already been formed with some variants in the early 5th century when king Jangsu built a monument for his father and Goguryeo made contact with the Northern Wei. The inscription of that monument gives these names: 鄒牟 Chumo, 儒留 Yuryu, and 大朱留 Daejuryu. The connections between those names are not clear.
Sources: (The Academy of Korean Studies) and (Korea Britannica Corp.)

The Kingdom of Bodeok (668-883) was a Goguryeo revival movement led by General Geom Mojam, and Prince Anseung, who was a grandson of Bojang Taewang. This kingdom allied itself with Later Silla, and fought to remove all Tang armies and authority out of the Korean Peninsula. The Kingdom of Goguryeo fell when Anseung ordered the assassination of Geom Mojam. After this event, Anseung and the remainder of the revival movement fled down to Silla, where Anseung was married to a Silla princess and given land near Iksan. Bodeok was the name given to Anseung's small kingdom near Iksan after the fall of the Goguryeo revival movement of Geom Mojam.

Anseung (고안승) (668-683) Bodeok (Kingdom of Goguryeo)
Baekje (18 BC - AD 660) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Temple names were the same as personal names, unless noted otherwise.

Source: [1] Baekje
After the fall of Baekje in 660, several loyal Baekje generals gathered like-minded people and began organizing revival movements of their country. The most prominent among these revival movement leaders were General Heukchi Sang-ji, and General Boksin. These two generals worked together, and later decided that the new kingdom would need a ruler, and brought Prince Buyeo Pung from the Yamato Kingdom. The revival movement resulted in failure due to mistrust and infighting.

Pungjang of Baekje (부여풍) (r.661-663) Baekje Revival Movememt
Silla (57 BC - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. In the early years, Silla was ruled by the Pak, Seok, and Kim families. Rulers of Silla had various titles, including Isageum, Maripgan, and Daewang. Like some Baekje kings, some declared themselves emperor.

Hyeokgeose Geoseogan 혁거세 거서간 (57 BCE4 CE)
Namhae Chachaung 남해 차차웅 (4–24)
Yuri Yisageum (24–57) 유리이사금 儒理尼師今 (Kings Yuri to Heurhae bore the Korean title Isageum, an old word for "ruler")
Talhae Isageum 탈해이사금 脫解尼師今 (57–80)
Pasa Isageum 파사이사금 婆娑尼師今 (80–112)
Jima Isageum 지마이사금 祗摩尼師今 (112–134)
Ilseong Isageum 일성이사금 逸聖尼師今 (134–154)
Adalla Isageum 아달라이사금 阿達羅尼師今 (154–184)
Beolhyu Isageum 벌휴이사금 伐休尼師今 (184–196)
Naehae Isageum 내해이사금 奈解尼師今 (196–230)
Jobun Isageum 조분이사금 助賁尼師今 (230–247)
Cheomhae Isageum 첨해이사금 沾解尼師今 (247–261)
Michu Isageum 미추이사금 味鄒尼師今 (262–284)
Yurye Isageum 유례이사금 儒禮尼師今 (284–298)
Girim Isageum 기림이사금 基臨尼師今 (298–310)
Heulhae Isageum 흘해이사금 訖解尼師今 (310–356)
Naemul Maripgan 내물마립간 奈勿麻立干 (356–402) (Kings Naemul to Soji bore the Korean title Maripgan, an old word for "ruler")
Silseong Maripgan 실성마립간 實聖麻立干 (402–417)
Nulji Maripgan 눌지마립간 訥祗麻立干 (417–458)
Jabi Maripgan 자비마립간 慈悲麻立干 (458–479)
Soji Maripgan 소지마립간 炤智麻立干 (479–500)
King Jijeung 지증왕 智證王 (500–514) (Kings Jijeung to Gyeongsun bore the title Wang (the modern Korean word for "king"), with the exceptions noted below)
King Beopheung the Great 법흥태왕 法興太王 (514–540) ("King Beopheung the Great" is a translation of Beopheung Taewang, "Taewang" meaning "great king")
King Jinheung the Great 진흥태왕 眞興太王 (540–576) ("King Jinheung the Great" is a translation of Jinheung Taewang, "Taewang" meaning "great king")
King Jinji 진지왕 眞智王 (576–579)
King Jinpyeong 진평왕 眞平王 (579–632)
Queen Seondeok 선덕왕 善德王 (632–647)#Queen Jindeok 진덕대왕 眞德大王 (647–654)
King Muyeol the Great 태종무열왕 太宗武烈王 (654–661) ("King Muyeol the Great" is a translation of Muyeol Daewang, "Daewang" meaning "great king") Silla

King Munmu 문무대왕 文武大王 (661–681)
King Sinmun 신문왕 神文王 (681–691)
King Hyoso 효소왕 孝昭王 (692–702)
King Seongdeok the Great 성덕대왕 聖德大王 (702–737) ("King Seongdeok the Great" is a translation of Seongdeok Daewang, "Daewang" meaning "great king")
King Hyoseong 효성왕 孝成王 (737–742)
King Gyeongdeok 경덕왕 景德王 (742–765)
King Hyegong 혜공왕 惠恭王 (765–780)
King Seondeok 선덕왕 宣德王 (780–785)
King Wonseong 원성왕 元聖王 (785–798)
King Soseong 소성왕 昭聖王 (798–800)
King Aejang 애장왕 哀莊王 (800–809)
King Heondeok 헌덕왕 憲德王 (809-826)
King Heungdeok 흥덕왕 興德王 (826–836)
King Huigang 희강왕 僖康王 (836–838)
King Minae 민애왕 閔哀王 (838–839)
King Sinmu 신무왕 神武王 (839)
King Munseong 문성왕 文聖王 (839–857)
King Heonan 헌안왕 憲安王 (857–861)
King Gyeongmun 경문왕 景文王 (861–875)
King Heongang 헌강왕 憲康王 (875–886)
King Jeonggang 정강왕 定康王 (886–887)
Queen Jinseong 진성왕 眞聖王 (887–897)
King Hyogong 효공왕 孝恭王 (897–912)
King Sindeok 신덕왕 神德王 (913–917)
King Gyeongmyeong 경명왕 景明王 (917–924)
King Gyeongae 경애왕 景哀王 (924–927)
King Gyeongsun 경순왕 敬順王 (927–935) Later Silla (Unified Silla)
Gaya confederacy (42 - 532) consisted of several small statelets. All rulers of Gaya bore the title Wang ("King").

Gaya confederacy
This list is of the Kim Dynasty of Geumgwan Gaya (42-532).

Geumgwan Gaya
Only four of the sixteen kings of Daegaya (42 - 562) are known by name.
1. King Ijinashi of Daegaya 이진아시왕, also known as Naejinjuji 내진주지 or Noejiljuil 뇌질주일
9. King Inoe of Daegaya 이뇌왕, 8th generation descendant of Yi Jinashi
?. King Haji of Daegaya 하지왕, generation unknown; possibly also known as King Gasil [2]; sent emissary to 南齊 China in 479, joined Baekje to aid Silla from Goguryeo attack in 481 [3] [4]
16. King Doseolji of Daegaya 도설지왕, submitted to Silla

Balhae (669-926) followed Goguryeo in the northern territories when Silla unified most of the Korean peninsula. The founder called the state Jin, claiming to be the successor to Goguryeo, but it became known as Balhae (Pohai in Chinese) after establishing relations with China.

The State of Je (765-819), also known as Chi-Chung, was founded by General Yi Jeonggi, a Tang general and son of a Goguryeo captive. Yi Jeonggi took advantage of the Tang Empire's pre-occupation with the An Lushan Rebellion, and established the kingdom of Chi-Chung, later called Je, claiming it a successor-state of Goguryeo. Chi-Chung took control of the Shandong Peninsula, and regions surrounding it. In this way, the kingdom posed a grave threat to the Tang Empire. After four generations, the Kingdom of Chi-Chung fell to a Tang-Silla alliance army. Before its destruction, Chi-Chung was said to have had a very unique system of administration that combined both Goguryeo and Tang elements of government. It was also said to have had heavy influence in commerce and trading in East Asia.

Yi Jeonggi (Hangul : 이정기 Hanja/Hanzi :李正己/李定己) 765CE - 781CE
Yi Nab (Hangul : 이납 Hanja/Hanzi :李納) 781CE - 793 CE
Yi Sago (Hangul : 이사고 Hanja/Hanzi :李師古) 793CE - 807CE
Yi Sado (Hangul : 이사도 Hanja/Hanzi :李師道) 807CE - 819 CE Je
Hubaekje (900-936) was founded by Gyeon Hwon, who was a general during Later Silla's period of decline. Gyeon Hwon was known among the people as a hero, and a patriot. When General Gyeon Hwon started a rebellion, many people followed, and assisted in his establishing of a new kingdom. Peace did not last as Gung-ye established Hugoguryeo in the north. Thus began the Later Three Kingdoms period. Hubaekje met its downfall at the hands of Gyeon Hwon, who led the Goryeo armies alongside Emperor Wang Geon to capture Singeom, who had betrayed Gyeon Hwon.

Gyeon Hwon (견훤) (r.900-935)
Gyeon Singgeom (견신검) (r.935-936) Later Baekje
Later Goguryeo (901-918), also known as Ma-jin or Taebong, was established by Gung-ye, an outcast prince of Silla. Gung-Ye joined General Yang-Gil's rebellion, and rose through the ranks. He eventually assassinated Yang-Gil and established a new kingdom, naming it Later Goguryeo. Gung-Ye turned out to be a tyrant, and was overthrown by his generals, opening the way for General Wang Geon, who established Goryeo.

Gung-ye (궁예) (r.901-918) Later Goguryeo
Goryeo (918-1392) was ruled by the Wang Dynasty. The first ruler had the temple name Taejo, which means "great progenitor", and was applied to the first kings of both Goryeo and Joseon, as they were also the founders of the Wang and Yi Dynasties respectively. Starting with Gwangjong, rulers of Goryeo styled themselves emperors, with the first three rulers elevated to that title posthumously. With the Mongol conquest, however, the title of the ruler was demoted to a king, or "Wang."
The next twenty-three emperors (until Wonjong) are also referred to by their temple names, ending in jong. Beginning with Chungnyeol (the twenty-fifth king), all the remaining kings of Goryeo had the title Wang ("King") as part of their temple names. Era names are in bracket where available

Joseon (1392–1897) followed Goryeo. In 1897, when Joseon became the Korean Empire, some of the Joseon kings were posthumously raised to the rank of emperors.
Joseon monarchs had temple names ending in jo or jong. Jo was given to the first kings/emperors of new lines within the dynasty, with the first king/emperor having the special name (Taejo), which means "great progenitor" (see also Goryeo). Jong was given to all other kings/emperors.
Two kings, Yeonsangun and Gwanghaegun, were not given temple names after their reigns ended.
Each monarch had a posthumous name that included either the title Wang ("King"), Hwangje ("Emperor"), Daewang ("King X the Great"), or Daeje ("Emperor X the Great"). For the sake of consistency, the title "King/Emperor" has been added to each monarch's temple name in the list below.

see Korean Empire section Joseon
The Korean Empire (1897-1910) was declared to indicate the end of the tributary relationship with China. Technically, the emperors should be referred to by their era names rather than their temple names, but the latter are commonly used.

See also

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